Fundamentals of Seismic For Non-Geophysicists (2 days)

Understand geophysical maps, sections & analyses for exploration, development & reserves estimation


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Target audience

This course will greatly benefit anyone who needs to communicate more effectively with petroleum geophysicists and to better understand geophysical maps, sections and analyses for exploration, development and reserves estimation, such as:

  • Geologists with limited geophysics training or background
  • Managers, contracts administrators, and technical support personnel who need to understand seismic jargon
  • Supervisors and managers who want to communicate better with their team geophysicists
  • Supply chain and support personnel who would like to more effectively support their seismic field crews
  • Reservoir engineers who regularly liaise with geophysicists and/or work with seismic maps and other geophysical inputs

Course Objectives

The course provides a fundamental understanding and overview of the petroleum industry?s seismic method for personnel who come into contact with seismic during their work but have little or no background in this area. It is pitched at a basic awareness level so that participants will be able to understand key concepts, applications and terminology associated with the acquisition, processing and interpretation of seismic data. The course is non-mathematical and includes talks, discussions, video footage, demonstrations, hands-on exercises, and case studies. Jargon is kept to a minimum and technical terms are clearly explained.

Participants will gain an understanding of the strengths and limitations of the seismic method, costs and risks involved, the meaning of seismic maps and sections and an overview of the latest developments in seismic technology.

Outline of course

Introductory Principles

Introduction to the seismic method
  • What is seismic, overview of the process
  • Different types of seismic: 2D, 3D, 4D, 4C
  • How and where can it be acquired
  • Role, cost and value of seismic in the E&P cycle
Fundamental Seismic Principles
  • Modes of sound energy propagation
  • Wavefronts and raypaths
  • Compressional and shear waves
  • Where do the reflections come from?
  • Acoustic impedance and reflection coefficients
  • Interval and average velocities
  • Characteristics of the seismic wavelet
  • Amplitude, bandwidth and phase
  • Data limitations: vertical and lateral resolution
  • EXERCISE: How small can we see?
Characteristics of Seismic Sections
  • Types of displays and scales
  • Shotpoints, CDPs and traces
  • Inlines and crosslines
  • Time slices
  • Chair displays
  • EXERCISE: Seismic sections and noise

Seismic Acquisition

The survey design process
  • Geometry, stack and fold
  • Offend and split spread layout

Acquisition equipment - onshore and offshore

Energy Sources
  • Desired source qualities
  • Conventional sources
  • Unconventional sources
Receivers
  • Desired receiver qualities
  • Geophones and hydrophones
  • Receiver arrays

Ancillary equipment

Field operations - Onshore and offshore
  • 2D, 3D, 4D, HD3D, OBC, VC, MAZ, WAZ
Limitations on seismic imaging
  • Cost issues
  • Types and sources of noise
  • CASE STUDY: Planning a seismic program

Seismic Data Processing (without the maths)

Key objectives of processing

Basic processing computations: stacking, convolution, imaging

Understanding the key elements of a processing sequence

  • Pre-stack processing
  • Geometry and stacking charts
  • Amplitudes in time and offset
  • Primary reflections and multiples
  • Deconvolution
  • Normal Moveout
  • First breaks and Statics
  • Gathers and stacking
  • Velocity analysis
  • Post-stack processing
  • Migration ? Pre- and post-stack
  • Filtering and scaling
  • Attribute processing,/li>
  • Case histories and data examples
  • Simple graphical exercises related to: stacking, NMO, convolution, migration

Seismic Interptetation

Fundamental Principles
  • What is seismic character?
  • What can we see: chronostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, DHIs
  • The role of models in interpretation
  • Structural interpretation
  • Tieing wells to seismic data
  • Time to depth conversion
  • Seismostratigraphic interpretation
Interpretation exercises
  • Well tie to seismic section
  • Simple structural interpretation
  • Simple seismostratigraphic interpretation
  • Simple depth conversion study